We used our Pearltree websites to find five sources each of information on famous icons from Sheffield, Alex Turner and Sean Bean.
The written summary on the theory of interviewing. With do’s and do not’s.
- You are only able to get so much secondary research data from the internet and cannot get 100% accurate information without talking to somebody.
- You are able to get the human side to a story with personal opinions, direct quotes, emotions and body language.
- You can get an experts opinion from somebody who knows about the subject.
- You can get a challenge opinion from a controversial topic and get many different viewpoints and opinions
- You can bring a story alive with a direct quote from somebody on what they have said about the topic
How To Interview
- Detail. You can start with asking questions and finding out about the subject and what has happened to get the main jist of the story.
- Opinion. You are able to get an opinion from a person who knows more about the topic and is able to offer more.information for the story on the subject. The interviewee may have controversial opinions also which means for a more gripping story.
- Action. You are able to know more on a subject and what is going to happen next
Types Of Interview
- Face – to – face. This is the best technique to establish a perfect delivery on the desired questions you want to ask
while getting emotion and body language from the person also.
- Telephone. You should always introduce yourself firstly while in a telephone interview and never pretend to be someone else.
- Email/Social Media. These are less affective as you are not able to get a person to explain in further detail very easily and social media can limit what you can say (For example, Twitter)
- Don’t ask closed questions which can be answered with a ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ answer. Add depth and detail to your questions.
- Don’t ask multiple questions at once as this can confuse the interviewee and may agitate them.
- Don’t stick to a rigid and boring list of questions. By following on from what your interviewee said with a questions you can make the interview seem like a conversation more than a formal interview.
- Do listen carefully to what your interviewee said. This shows politeness and gives you a chance to ask more questions.
- Follow up on questions. Ask more or different questions if needed.
Meeting Your Interviewee
- Be polite and friendly to your interviewee. Always listen well, and say thank you for their time they spent letting you interview them.
- Be prepared. Remember questions you want to ask and have equipment needed to record the research. For example, a pen and paper, a camera and a recorder to record the interview.
- Introduce yourself. You should always say who you are and shake hands with the interviewee as this shows you are open and ready for the interview.
- Ask questions that the audience wants you to ask them and know more information about so this will give the mostknowledgeable and interesting story.
- Don’t be afraid to ask difficult questions which may be personal. This is how you are able to get the best story and questions such as these are necessary .
- Be sensitive to the situation of the interviewee. Sometimes the interview may become emotional and while staying professional to be polite and kind you should show sympathy to the situation.
- ALWAYS ask people to repeat a question or explain it in further detail if needed. This is a big mistake amongst interviewers and means people do not understand what has been answered and means that their story may not make sense and complicates things for the story.
Coping With Difficult People
- Don’t lose your temper. You must always be polite to an interviewee as they are providing you with information for your story.
- Keep the conversation going if you see it going down hill. This may mean asking more interesting questions the interviewee will like.
- Wrap an interview up if needed. If the conversation is dry and the interviewee is showing clear signs of not wanting to be interviewed wrap the interview up.
- Always remain polite to an interviewee and thank them for their time.
- Don’t panic. Move on to different questions and let the person speak.
- Refer to the prepared questions for help if you don’t know what else to say.
- Talk in general terms to get back on track to the interview.
- Also, think back to D.O.A. (Detail, Opinion, Action)
- Politely bring the conversation to a close and thank them for their time.
- If the interview is live, explain that this is the amount of time you have for the interview.
- Always remember to say thank you for the interviewee’s time and for the interview.
Why Research Is Important
- Helps to decide relevant questions needed to be asked to the interviewee.
- It gives you something to start the conversation with as you know what you’re talking about.
- It looks professional to an interviewee.
- It will avoid you looking unprepared and as if you don’t know what you’re talking about.
- Research also provides you with background material on the story you are covering.
- It will make the interviewee more at ease in the interview and them being more comfortable may make them answer your questions better and in more detail.
- In a press conference you need to know what’s going on in a story and gives background information.
If You Don’t Do Research
- The interviewee thinks you look unprofessional and may decline being interviewed.
- He/She may have to repeat obvious information to you about the subject.
- The interviewee may become uncomfortable going over information as it should be obvious.
- He/She does not relax in the interview meaning they may not give you as much information as liked.
- He/She may refuse to be interviewed as they may be insulted or feel as if you aren’t taking the interview seriously with your lack of preparation and inappropriate manner.
- You may miss out on something important from the information such as information you wanted.
Media Effects: Theories
Hypoderlic Needle Theory
‘Injected’ with ideologies, beliefs, messages and values. While our behaviour is easily and directly shaped by media messages. This means that whatever message the media is trying to address we will believe completely and are easily persuaded into the beliefs on the media message with shock factors and information provided without questioning the message from the media.
Two Step Flow
The media assumes a more active audience (An audience less persuaded by media messages and questions them) who will discuss the media text with each other. However, it still assumes we can be passive and proposes that we are then influenced by ‘opinion leaders’ e.g. Parents, doctors and experts. These are people that will help to give more information on the media message and provide us with an answer on whether we should believe the message given by the media.
Repeated exposure to a media message will lead to ‘desensitation’ which means the more a media message shows (Audience swearing and violence) the less sensitive people will become about the situation until they are completely okay and aware of the situation
Uses And Gratification
This theory investigates why the audience use the media and assumes that the audience are active consumes – not passive. Media can be used in many different ways such as: Surveillance in ways that people may watch the news to find out what is happening in the world. Diversion, in ways that people may use media as a procrastination tool and to avoid responsibilities or situations that are going on in their life. Personal identity is also a factor as people may be able to relate to a person in the media and find this comforting to have similarities to this person. Finally, media can also be used for personal relationships for example; a similar interest in a show or film people may be talking about. By watching this, it may give the person a topic to speak with and have in common with another, building on their relationship.
Reception Theory (Stuart Hall)
The audience do not passively accept a media text and question the text on what its message. Hall proposed three different audience readings.
Dominance reading – Media text interpreted in the way intended by the producer
Negotiated reading – Audience accepts some of the media text but not all aspects
Oppositional reading – Audience in conflict with the text message
Audience readings can depend on: Gender, age, situation culture, lifestyle, experience and knowledge. Gender can mean that people will have different views because of the different experiences the have gone through and peoples ages may mean they are more experienced, mature and knowledgeable in certain situations.
An example of the Reception Theory is on the popular and controversial game ‘Grand Theft Auto’ (GTA) and discussed different peoples personal views on the game and if teenagers should be playing this game.
A Parent’s View – Depending on whether a parent thinks their child is mature enough mentally and emotionally to handle the game and play it for entertainment purposes only may determine on them letting them play the game. Also, some parents may be more lenient than others into letting their child play the game as they may themselves or not care as they trust their child is sensible enough to play the game if they like. Some parents may know about the game and can determine if it is appropriate to let their child play. (A parents would have a negotiated reading)
Social Worker’s View – Social Workers would believe that the game can have negative influences on a child or teenager and may disapprove of the glamorization of weaponry and drugs in the game and may believe it could influence children and teens. (A social worker would have an oppositional reading)
The Censorship Debate: Should there be censorship on the media material to avoid negative influences on adolescents?
- Censorship in today’s age is incredibly easy to go against. People are able to gain media material in many different ways than there was now than there was before. For example, films can now be watched online where people can lie about their age so they can be of age on the movie rating. Also, people are able to download films illegally from the internet or have older people buy the films for them so censorship is almost pointless as people always have ways of going against it.
- If children are going to watch a film or play a video game which is rated older than what they are it should be the parent’s responsibility to know their child well enough to know if they are emotionally and mentally mature enough to watch the film or play the video game.
- A video game or film cannot truly influence someone into misbehaving or have negative effects on the person. This would be done to their behavior and background and if they are not passive enough to know that the film or game is not real and that they are also mature enough to know not to let this effect them
- An age rating can also not determine the maturity of a person and whether they are emotionally and mentally mature enough to handle the media material. For example. a fifteen year old may be mature enough to handle something an eighteen year old cannot.
- Censorship allows a security wall against letting children and under eighteens see things that may be too graphic or harmful for them.
- As under eighteens are much more likely to be persuaded and are more influenced by what they see, censorship can be used to protect minors from seeing things they may be influenced into doing such as violence, alcohol and drugs. Having a watershed helps to keep these things that may be seen by children at a very low risk of them viewing such things.
- Having censorship allows parents and guardians to control and know what they wish to show their child and have a better insight on what a media piece may contain and whether it is suitable and appropriate for their child (whether it’s a video, game, film or tv show)
- Age ratings help to determine the suitability of contain a child may view and allow a larger insight to stronger content. For example a PG rating on film won’t use strong language or violence and will be more suited to kids without the use of drugs, alcohol or sexual scenes in this film. However, a 15+ rating film will have much stronger and darker films as at this age people are more likely to understand that the content shown isn’t real and that the content shown in the media is likely to be copied.
1. NOBODY wants to be in Hufflepuff house…Unless you’re a Hufflepuff.
If you’re in Hufflepuff house you will do anything in your power to defend your beloved house and founder Helga Hufflepuff. That is because… nobody really takes Hufflepuffs seriously. They’re not really in the limelight often or mentioned that frequently. However, don’t lose faith Hufflepuffs, you’re known to be excellent finders and friends that are loyal, helpful and are largely patient and dedicated. Go Hufflepuffs!
2. When Dumbledore died, you cried. When Dobby died, you felt like you had been stabbed too.
We all shed tears when Dumbledore fell of the Astronomy tower however nobody was prepared for the tiny little dagger, that killed tiny little Dobby and broke our tiny little hearts. Dobby was our friend, the way his tennis ball-sized eyes glassed over was something nobody has been prepared for. We would no longer know what woolly socks Dobby would be wearing or see his tea cosy hat ever again. His big heart that stopped beating broke ours and we will never be ready to say goodbye. R.I.P Dobby.
3. The dreams of one day visiting The Wizarding World of Harry Potter in Los. Angeles is very, very real.
The dream of finding out what butterbeer finally tastes like, wandering around Honeydukes and the streets of Hogsmeade and finally walking through the grand doors to the Great Hall. Being submerged by a land of everything Harry Potter is what every Potterhead dreams of. However, maybe our bank account doesn’t!
4. Book Ginny Weasley will ALWAYS be better than film Ginny.
Film Ginny although all of us knowing she grew up with six brothers was portrayed as a fragile, over emotional and reckless girl. Growing up with her brothers she was a very strong and independent girl who could fend for herself. She was brave and clever giving her an edge to her kind and caring nature – the girl Harry had fallen for. Nobody will forget her famous bat boogey hex that was one of a kind. But instead we are forced to remember for her soppy hopelessness for Harry and romance with Dean Thomas, something she is much better than.
5. Harry was terrible at naming his children. Terrible.
Albus Severus… I mean, really? Two headmasters who for one, lied to Harry his whole life and knew he must die. And the second who was unfair to him and treated him horribly his whole time at Hogwarts. What about his Godfather Sirius who died in vain for Harry and loved him dearly? Or Remus who cared about him like a father and taught him many valuable lessons and to fight dementors. And of course Arthur, who was the closest Harry could get to a father figure. And I understand Harry wanting to name his children after his parents however, did Ginny get a say in any of her children’s first names? Surely Lily’s middle name ‘Luna’ had something to do with Luna being Ginny’s best friend however, for her to carry three of Harry’s children he may have been more considerate in the names. Perhaps Lily or James could have been a middle name instead?
In basic photography terms, ISO is the photo sensitivity to available light. By changing the ISO, the lower the ISO number, the less sensitive the light is. while the higher the number of the ISO, the higher the increase of sensitivity to light.
This is the exposure triangle, over the course of a few weeks, I have learnt how to control shutter speed and aperture to produce a perfect photo. ISO would make up the exposure triangle which are the three elements a photographer needs to be aware of for a perfect photo.
This image shows the differences between different ISO numbers. The higher the number the more light is let in. Although, it makes the image more grainy. The lower the number on the ISO scale, the darker the image. Although, the image would show much clearer.
We did our own ISO shots and here are a few of our examples:
These are four of my sample shots. This is the same image changing the ISO from 6400 to 3200 then 800 and 100. The exposure to light is different making the images go darker as the exposure becomes less and less. The the more the camera is exposed to light, the brighter the image will be. However, the image also becomes more granulated the higher the number the IOS scale is.
Media regulation: Regulation is control and guidance within the media and consists of rules and procedures set by a specific governing body to keep control of personal information, confidentiality and laws.
External Regulation: Laws set by the Government to keep confidentiality and abide to strict laws.
Examples of this are:
- Contempt of court
- Obscene publications act
- Defamation Law
Internal Regulation: Codes of conduct by national industries specializing in media
Examples of this are:
Regarding the Prince Harry story, the defamation law and the Ofcom broadcasting code would impact the final story published by journalists as they would have to stick to strict rules as they would have to take into account confidentiality and appropriate content depending on the audience the story is being published for. For example, if the story was being published for an audience of under 15 (Children – Most likely ‘Newsround’ a children’s news show) Ofcom would state that the content provided would have to be suitable and appropriate for younger audiences. For example, on the topic of Prince Harry’s story their is a topic on drug abuse. According to Ofcom ‘The use of illegal drugs, the abuse of drugs, smoking, solvent abuse and the misuse of alcohol must not be featured in programmes made primarily for children unless there is strong editorial justification’ For this case, the would not glamorize nor show any person abusing the drug or the drug itself and would provide education on the negatives of this situation and why drug use is a serious problem using scare tactics.
Defamation is something published which causes serious harm to somebody’s reputation. In this case, sometimes a person must identified but not always by name. For example: “A 54 year old man living in Suffolk”
To find information on the story, we cannot accuse of Prince Harry of taking drugs at the party himself until more evidence and information is collecting and to do so; would interview Prince Harry himself and guests of the party or anybody who had went with the Prince and find information of guests which may have taken or provided drugs and found out what Prince Harry did the day of the party. The venue of the party may also be searched to find evidence of what happened at the party also.
I was investigating Aperture and Depth of field in photography and what they both do. Depth of field is the amount of distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph. This is commonly done by focusing on one object while the other surrounding objects stay out of focus. An aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels (In this case, the sense) More specifically, the aperture and focal length of an optical system and determines the amount of light allowed to travel through and focus on an object.
Examples of ‘Depth Of Field’
The aperture scale shows how much light is let in depending on the depth of field so a larger aperture (Which let’s more light in and has the most open lense) had a shallow depth of field (Focus) Whereas, a small aperture (Letting in the least amount of light in and has a small opening from the lense) had a deeper depth of field (Focus)
This image is an example of a deep depth of field shot. This means the foreground image is the main focus of the shot. The plant in the foreground can be seen in extreme detail whole the background is slightly blurred out and less focused. This means that less light was striking the image sensor.
This image is an example of a shallow depth of field shot. The background is more focused than the foreground object which is a plant almost like the camera is looking through it to focus on the background. This means that more light was striking the image sensor and brought more light in.
This is another example of a shallow depth of field shot with the background pen in focus while the foreground is blurred out. This means the light is focused on the background rather than the front.
Listicals are commonly used in Journalism and media to draw readers into reading a quick and small election of things regarding the topic.
I used Pearltree to pin listicals I found as an example of a listical I could create myself
I have thought about a listical I could create on a topic I’m interested in; for example, ’10 things all Harry Potter fans can relate too”